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Chapter 3. Physiological Factors: Part 1

Florida Drug and Alcohol Test (TLSAE) Course:  Chapter 3. Physiological Factors: Part 1

This chapter covers the following topics

3.1. Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of Drugs
3.2. Prescription and Over-the-counter Medications
3.3. Synergistic Effects of Alcohol and Other Drugs
3.4. Aspects of Use, Abuse, Dependence and Addiction

In Brief

Section 3.1. Comparison of the Effects of Different Types of Drugs

NARCOTICS

The term narcotic, derived from the Greek word for stupor, originally referred to a variety of substances that induced sleep. Narcotics include opium, morphine, codeine, heroin, and Oxycodone HCL. This is a type of drug that induces a soothing, lulling or dulling affect, and in large enough doses can cause comas and death.

Narcotics include pain-killing drugs that also induce euphoria and are powerful central nervous system depressants that can induce sleep and reduce anxiety. As drugs of abuse, they are often swallowed, smoked, sniffed or injected. Narcotics, including both prescription drugs such as painkillers and street drugs such as heroin, are very addictive. It is illegal to take prescription drugs that have been prescribed for another person.

Drugs Physical Dependence Psychological Dependence Duration (Hours) Possible Effects
Opium High High 3 to 6 Euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea
         
Morphine High High 3 to 6 Pain relief, euphoria, nausea, confusion, respiratory depression and arrest
         
Codeine Moderate Moderate 3 to 6 Drowsiness, sedation, nausea, confusion, unconsciousness
         
Heroin High High 3 to 6 Euphoria, staggering gait, drowsiness, confusion, coma
         
Oxycodone HCL Moderate Moderate 3 to 6 Pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness, nausea, sedation

(DrugAbuse.gov: http://drugabuse.gov/DrugPages/DrugsofAbuse.html)

NARCOTICS ARE VERY ADDICTIVE

DEPRESSANTS


Depressants are also occasionally referred to as "downers". Downers are drugs with chemicals that slow the functioning of the brain and the central nervous system. The effects of other depressants are in many ways similar to the effects of alcohol. Small amounts can produce calmness and relaxed muscles, but larger doses can cause slurred speech, staggering, and altered perception. Very large doses can cause respiratory depression, coma, and death. The combination of other depressants and alcohol can multiply the effects of the drugs and alcohol, increasing the risks.

Regular use of depressants over time can result in physical and psychological addiction. People who suddenly stop taking large doses can experience withdrawal symptoms, including anxiety, insomnia, tremors, delirium, convulsions, and possible death. Withdrawal symptoms are generally the opposite of the direct effects of the drug.

Depressants include: barbiturates, methaqualone, benzodiazepines, flunitrazepam, and GHB.
  1. Barbiturates: The physical effects of use of barbiturates include: sedation, slurred speech, drowsiness/depression, unusual excitement, fever, irritability, poor judgment, dizziness, and life-threatening withdrawal.
  2. Methaqualone: This drug can cause both physical and psychological dependence. Effects include euphoria/depression, poor reflexes, slurred speech, and coma.
  3. Benzodiazepines: Also known as tranquilizers, these drugs cause drowsiness, a sense of well-being, sedation, and dizziness.High doses can produce: impaired memory, poor concentration, impaired coordination, and respiratory depression and arrest.
  4. Flunitrazepam: Also known as Rohypnol, this drug causes visual and gastrointestinal disturbances, urinary retention, and memory loss for the time under the drug's effects.
  5. GHB: Effects include drowsiness, nausea/vomiting, headache, loss of consciousness, loss of reflexes, seizures, coma, and death.
(Source: National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA))

Driving while under the influence of depressants is very hazardous. Also, babies born to mothers who abuse these drugs are at risk for birth defects and behavioral problems.

DEPRESSANTS TAKEN WITH ALCOHOL CAN BE LETHAL
STIMULANTS

A stimulant is a name given to drugs that increase heart rate, blood pressure, and energy. Stimulants include pharmaceuticals, such as amphetamines, and street drugs, such as cocaine. Stimulants are often called "uppers" or "speed."


The more widely abused stimulants are amphetamines and nicotine. Physicians sometimes prescribe amphetamines, and their availability makes them prime candidates for misuse.

Amphetamines can cause rapid breathing, tremor, loss of coordination, irritability, anxiousness, restlessness, delirium, panic, paranoia, impulsive behavior, aggressiveness, and psychosis. A common form of abuse of amphetamines is by people who use them to counter the effects of narcotics or depressants taken the night before. This roller-coaster effect is damaging to the body.

Stimulants increase alertness, attention, and energy, as well as elevate blood pressure, heart rate, respiration and boost mood Also wakefulness, endurance, productivity, and motivation, arousal, locomotion and a diminished desire for food and sleep. Prescription stimulants increase levels of dopamine in the brain.



Drugs Physical Dependence Psychological Dependence Duration (Hours) Possible Effects
Cocaine Possible High 1 to 2 Nausea, headache, increased temperature, chest pain, abdominal pain, seizure, panic attack, respiratory failure, stroke
         
Amphetamines High High 2 to 4 Increased heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism; feelings of exhilaration, energy, and increased mental alertness; rapid or irregular heart beat; reduced appetite, weight loss, nervousness, insomnia, and heart failure
         
MDMA (Ecstasy) Possible Moderate 2 to 4 Mild hallucinogenic effects, increased tactile sensitivity, empathetic feelings, impaired memory and learning, hyperthermia, cardiac toxicity, renal failure, liver toxicity
         
Nicotine High Moderate 2 to 4 Adverse pregnancy outcomes, chronic lung disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer



STIMULANTS CAN CAUSE AN IRREGULAR HEARTBEAT AND PHYSICAL COLLAPSE

HALLUCINOGENS

Hallucinogens, or psychedelics, are drugs that affect a person's perceptions, sensations, thinking, self-awareness, and emotions. Hallucinogens include such drugs as LSD, Peyote, mescaline, and psilocybin. Some hallucinogens come from natural sources, such as mescaline, which comes from a cactus. Others, such as LSD, are synthetic, or manufactured.

What are the effects of hallucinogens?
The effects of psychedelics are unpredictable. It depends on the amount taken, the user's personality, mood, and expectations, and the surroundings in which the drug is used. The physical effects include altered states of perception and feeling, increased body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, nausea, and tremors.

Hallucinogens are a type of drug that causes distortion of the driver's perception, sight, hearing, and time and distance comprehension. Hallucinogens induce rapid mood swings, slow down reaction time, and cause lack of coordination and abnormal perception. With Hallucinogen use you develop a false sense of power and strength. This causes a false sense of achievement of success and creates a false sense of confidence in driving ability; results in violence and accidents.

Sensations and feelings change too. The user may feel several different emotions at once or swing rapidly from one emotion to another. The person's sense of time and self may be altered. Sensations may seem to "cross over," giving the user the feeling of "hearing" colors and "seeing" sounds. These changes can be frightening and can cause panic.

What is PCP?
PCP (phencyclidine), often called "angel dust, wet or illy" is categorized as a dissociative anesthetic, not a hallucinogen. The effects depend on how much is taken, the way it is used, and the individual. Effects include a possible decrease in blood pressure and heart rate, loss of appetite, panic, aggression, violence, and depression.

Drugs Physical Dependence Psychological Dependence Duration (Hours) Possible Effects
LSD None Unknown 8 to 12 Altered states of perception and feeling, nausea, persisting perception disorder (flashbacks), and persistent mental disorders
         
Mescaline None Unknown 8 to 12 Increased body temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure; loss of appetite, sleeplessness, numbness, weakness, and tremors


HALLUCINOGENS CAN CAUSE FLASHBACKS AND PERSISTENT MENTAL DISORDERS

Flashbacks are a re-experience of some aspect of a hallucinogenic trip that occurred months or even years prior. The nature of the experience usually involves visual disturbances such as flashes of color, trails in visual field, or fleeting perceptions in the peripheral field of view. This usually lasts a few seconds. Flashbacks are often triggered by stress, anxiety, fatigue or entering a dark environment.

INHALANTS


Inhalants are substances the user inhales through the nose or mouth that are typically easy to access because they are found in common household products. This does not mean, however, that inhalants are harmless. The effects of inhalants include stimulation, loss of inhibition, slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, headache, nausea or vomiting, wheezing, unconsciousness, cramps, and muscle weakness, memory impairment, weight loss, depression, damage to the cardiovascular and nervous systems, and sudden death.


Inhalants include solvents (paint thinners, gasoline, glues), gases (butane, propane, aerosol propellants, nitrous oxide), and other household products containing chemicals.

INHALANTS ARE EXTREMELY DANGEROUS BECAUSE EVEN ONE-TIME USE CAN RESULT IN SUDDEN DEATH!

CANNABINOIDS

Usually smoked as a cigarette, or joint, in a pipe, or in a "blunt," a cigar that has been emptied of tobacco and refilled with marijuana, sometimes in combination with another drug, such as crack. Some users also mix marijuana into foods or use it to brew tea.


The main active chemical in marijuana is THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). Effects of marijuana use include: euphoria, confusion, impaired balance and coordination, coughing, frequent respiratory infections,problems with memory and learning, distorted perception, difficulty in thinking and problem-solving, loss of coordination, slowed reaction time, increased heart rate, anxiety, and panic attacks.

Effects on the Brain: THC changes the way sensory information gets into and is acted on by the hippocampus. This is a component of the brain's limbic system that is crucial for learning, memory, and the integration of sensory experiences with emotions and motivations. The primary function of the limbic system is to control states of emotion and memory. After a person consumes a large amount of alcohol it is very common for the individual to suffer memory loss, or to experience exaggerated emotion states such as anger, aggressiveness, rage or extreme sadness, withdrawal and depression.

Effects on the Lungs: Someone who smokes marijuana regularly may have many of the same respiratory problems of tobacco smokers.

Regardless of the THC content, the amount of tar inhaled and the level of carbon monoxide absorbed by marijuana smokers is three to five times greater than by tobacco smokers. This may be due to users inhaling more deeply and holding the smoke in the lungs.

Drugs Physical Dependence Psychological Dependence Duration (Hours) Possible Effects
Marijuana Unknown Moderate 2 to 4 Euphoria, slowed thinking and reaction time, increased appetite, confusion, impaired balance and coordination, cough, frequent respiratory infections, impaired memory and learning, increased heart rate and anxiety, panic attacks
         
Hashish Unknown Moderate 2 to 4 Same as for marijuana


SMOKING MARIJUANA CAN BE AS UNHEALTHY AS SMOKING CIGARETTES AND CAN CAUSE CANCER


The effects of alcohol and other drugs can result in a trip to the hospital rather than your intended destination, especially if the user chooses to get behind the wheel while under the influence.

THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS CAN BE DEVASTATING
(National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): http://drugabuse.gov/drugpages/)
(NHTSA: http://www.nhtsa.gov/people/injury/research/job185drugs/drugs_web.pdf)

Florida Drug and Alcohol Test (TLSAE) Course:

Florida TLSAE/Drug & Alcohol 4 hour Course Online

Who is required to take this 4-hour drug and alcohol course?

This is a first-time drivers ed course for new aspiring drivers. The state of Florida requires all new drivers take a 4-hour drug and alcohol course. If you want your Permit License you must take this course. You can take the DATA course when you are 14 1/2. You can sign up right now at our website. Our course is easy and fun!
  •     Florida 4 hour first-time drivers course also referred as:
  •     TLSAE - Traffic Law and Substance Abuse Education
  •     DATA - Drug Alcohol Traffic Awareness course
  •     DATE Drug Alcohol Traffic Awareness Education course
  •     ADAPT - Alcohol Drugs Accident Prevention Training
  •     Drug & Alcohol Course or Drug and Alcohol Class
  •     Florida Permit Test or Florida Permit Exam Course
  •     The Permit Test is also known as the DMV Exam or DMV Test
Florida first time driver course required to get a Florida drivers license. Florida first time driver courses teach drivers how drugs and alcohol affect driving,. In that situation you have to go home, make a new appointment and return the DMV. Every new driver is required to take a Florida TLSAE course.

Enroll your Florida 4 hour drug and alcohol course online and meet your learner's permit requirement.

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